Sunday, May 28, 2017

Campers of the Storm

The man who goes afoot, prepared to camp anywhere and in any weather, is the most independent fellow on earth.
-H. Kephart

Clark and I had been planning the overnighter for weeks but the weather reports suggested any sane person would stay home...so of course we went. It was pouring rain when we got to the parking spot and we had at least an hour's hike to our secret spot. We had the right gear, leaving the only issue to be lightening strikes and falling tree limbs. Apparently the Lord protects fools, drunks, and adventurers because five minutes into our hike the rain and wind stopped and the lightening moved away. The storm had dropped the hot, humid air down to a comfortable mid-70F, unexpected for this time of year in Texas. The internet weather was saying our location was going to be pummeled repeatedly over the next 48 hours...which meant the woods would be ours and ours alone.

We raced to the campsite, expecting a new deluge to start at any minute but the only "rain" was water dripping from the tree leaves. Honestly, it was perfect....and it stayed that way.

Setting up our hammocks. I had the subdued, tan tarp while Clark goes bright orange.
Camp

Scenic Camp

There was a lot of lightening and few were closer than we liked, but the rain held off. The wind had picked up a little but just enough to keep the mosquitoes away and it barely ruffled our tarps. Because the Clarkettes had a swim meet that day we didn't leave Houston until 5pm but by 7:15pm our camp was set up and it was suppertime! Clark had his usual sandwich of Polish meats while I went with the simple and filling "boil in the bag" Chata Cochinita Pibil pork and Spanish rice wrapped in a spinach tortilla.

Camp

Camp

The sun set but almost continuous flashes of lightening kept the sky well lit. Even better, these flashes drew responses from lightening bugs dancing across the water. I need to figure out how to get pictures of the lightening, both sky and bug form.

At 2:30am a major storm blew in with pounding rain, wind, and more lightening. It was violent enough to wake me (a rare occurrence when I'm sleeping in the woods) but the hammock and tarp worked perfectly, keeping me and my gear safe, warm, and bone dry. It didn't take long for me to drift back asleep even in the tempest.

I didn't wake up until 8:30am the next morning which is probably the latest I've slept without being sedated in possibly decades! The sky was gray with fast moving clouds and the air was cool. The weather prediction continued to call for thunderstorms but it wasn't raining. No mosquitoes, either which was pretty amazing. I boiled some water for a freeze-dried breakfast, then got out my fishing kit...and fed small fish my bait. The bobber got pulled under a lot but I couldn't manage to set the hook. The water there was murky so I couldn't see what was taking my bait. Considering I was using my smallest hook it was probably just some of the minnows that were thick along the shore. Watching them chase the water-stridder bugs and other foods ended up being fascinating. I actually spent almost two hours watching the minnows eat a small bit of tortilla. It's amazing how easy it is to be entertained in the woods!

I had brought a book along but just watching the minnows, the clouds, the waving trees, the ripples of water...I never got around to being bored enough to read the book! At one point Clark and I took a walk around the pond where we were camped and I found goldenrod, amaranth, pine needles, horsemint, wild bergamot, toothache tree, wood sorrel, smartweed, and assorted other wild edibles...and two Walking Stick bugs having sex!

The birds do it, the bees do it, and the walking sticks, too!
Bug Sex

A view from across the pond.
Scenic Camp

Eventually it was time to pack up and head home. From putting the first item back in my pack to rolling into my driveway took exactly two hours, and this included hiking for five minutes in the pouring rain again as we approached my truck. I guess that was just God having a little fun with us because all it did was makes us think how absolutely grand the weekend was and how glad we were that we didn't let the weather reports scare us off.

I was worried this small stream would be raging water on our return but it was nothing.
Scenic

Looking back, the first post of this blog was May 17th, 2005...such a long time ago! Back them Clarke and I probably would have just sat home, griping about the weather. Over the years, through trial and error, we've reached the point where we feel we can handle just about anything nature can through at us. Whether or not this is true I suspect we'll find out some day...

Adventure! Excitement! Experience!



Road Food: Eggs

So to recap, after 18 years in the oil industry I got laid off along with 80% of my coworkers back in August of 2016 due to the low oil prices. I was almost immediately snatched up by a consumer chemicals company where I've been expanding their product line. It's a great job, perfectly suited for me and the coworkers are awesome. The only real downside is the morning commute is over one hour and coming home in the evening takes almost two hours. This means getting up at 5:15am to try and beat the traffic across Houston, which is too early for Miniwether to get up and cook me eggs like she had been doing every morning. :-(

I love eggs...fried, scrambled, boiled, poached, and any other way they can be served. I don't have time in the morning to have eggs anymore...or do I?! Being a scientist/inventor I figured there had to be a way to keep eggs on the menu. I like boiled eggs...I have assorted insulated travel mugs...hmmmm.

Trial 1: Boiling water + egg + freebie travel mug
Blog Egg

The raw egg and boiling water were placed in the travel mug and left along for one hour and fifteen minutes to mimic my commute. The water wasn't very hot by the end of this time and the egg was only soft-boiled. Considering it had been sitting for who knows how long under 140F I decided toss it out was the safest thing to do.

Least favorite way to have an egg.
Blog Egg

Well, that didn't work. The system lost heat too quickly. Obviously this'll take the big guns!

Trial 2: Boiling water + egg + Yeti/Arctic insulated tumbler
Blog Egg

Yep, the Yeti clone tumbler did the job, the egg was perfect. Eggs are back on the menu!

Adventure! Excitement! Science!

Sunday, May 14, 2017

Office Bushcraft

A plethora of raw materials!
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My office and laboratory are situated in two trailer house...excuse me, "modular facilities" at the far edge of the chemical plant where I work. Outside my window is the loading dock where truck after truck filled with 55 gallon drums of chemicals come in and leave all day long. Everything is cement, steel pipes, forklifts, and chemical tanks...not exactly the sort of place where one would think "bushcraft".

But my modular facility butts up against the plant's security fence and on the other side of this fence is small ditch then the road. The ditch disappears into a cement culvert under the loading dock and pops back open about 90' away. Surprisingly, this muddy ditch in the middle of manmade hell is loaded with all sorts of wild edible plants....but it's also filled with minnows, frogs, and crawfish. I have no idea how the minnows got there. The nearest pond or stream is 1/2 mile away. Yet, there the minnows frolic. I like to watch them on my lunch break.

After watching them for a week the idea of seeing if I could trap a took hold of my mind. The bush crafting internet is filled with all sorts of fish traps made of all sorts of materials, both wild and manmade. They all boiled down to some sort of wide tube with a funnel-shaped entrance. Fish swim in but they can't easily find their way out again. The concept seems easy and thanks to my coworker's addiction to Diet Dr. Pepper and my own occasional spurge on non-Yaupon holly tea, our recycling bins had just the raw materials needed to make a minnow trap!

I get no advertising kickback for this picture. :-(
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Once I had the two bottles all it took ways a few minutes with my little pocket knife, some tape, a binder clip, and a length of paracord. To bait this crazy creation I sacrificed a bit of instant oatmeal from my daily breakfast.

The top of the Dr. Pepper was cut off and inserted into the bottom of the ice bottle to make the funnel into a container. Small holes were cut in the tea bottle to let out bits of food as bait. Paracord was attached to the trap so it could be placed and retrieved easier. The binder clip allowed me to attach the paracord to the security fence.
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I still had 45 minutes left of my lunch break when I placed the trap in the ditch.
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I figured it'd be best to just place it there and then walk away rather than watch it. I went back to my desk to read but after 30 minutes I just had to check it. Pulling it up I was thrilled to see not only three large minnows but also to two small and two medium sized crawfish!! Woohoo!! I brought my catch into the office to show my coworkers and they were amazed... Apparently the previous R&D manager didn't use trash to catch things from the nasty ditch out back.

The catch transferred to a beaker.
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Alas, lunch was rapidly coming to an end and I had just enough time to return the creatures back to the drainage ditch they call home. I can't wait to take this trap on my next adventure to try and catch some bait...or additional protein for my meals!

Adventure! Excitement! Bushofficecraft!

Tuesday, May 09, 2017

Handline Fishing Kit

I like fishing but I hate carrying around fishing poles, especially while hiking. Growing up, I was enthralled by my older brother's Ronco Pocket Fisherman but even that's too big for daily carry in my woods kit. Over the years I kept coming across stories of handline fishing and was intrigued by it. So finally, I made my own handline setup and it actually worked!

A fish!
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Handlining involves simply wrapping your fishing line around an old Coke bottle, large pill bottle, piece of PVC pipe, or even a custom, hand-carved piece of exotic wood. It is a bobber/sinker/hook/live bait form of fishing where you unroll some of the fishing line from whatever it's wrapped around and toss it into the water as far as you can away from wherever you're sitting. This usually isn't all that far...maybe 10' with a bit of practice. Then you wait for a fish to take your bait. Reeling the fish in consists of just quickly rewrapping the fishing line back around whatever is your spool.

Before.
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For my spool I used a "New Whey Protein Drink" tube. These are made of thick, heavy duty plastic with a screw-on, watertight lid. Small swivel snaps were attached to both ends of 20 yards of 8 lb fishing line. One end of the line was held in place with a section of bicycle inner tube and the rest of the line was wrapped around the New Whey tube away from the bit of inner tube. A second piece of bicycle inner tube was then added to keep the working end of the line & swivel in place. A wine cork was cut into a rectangular slab into which were stuck hooks of assorted sizes and styles. Assorted other bobbles, sinkers, and lures that fit into the New Whey tube were added along with some scented fake "live" bait stored in a small pill bottle. Finally, a hole was drilled in the screw-cap cap of the New Whey tube and a bit of glow-in-the-dark cord was tied through it to make a wrist strap. I didn't want to lose my new creation!

After.
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What's in the tube? All this stuff!
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Stinky artificial bait...
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Moments before catching the nice sunfish.
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This crazy creation actually caught fish! I have a couple of these tubes so I'll be making a few more to stash in my truck and assorted hiking kits. Getting the right swing on the line during casting took a little experimenting and I wish I could fit a bigger bobber in the tube but so be it. Here's a link to my Amazon store with everything in the kit except for the wine cork.

Adventure! Excitement! Fish!

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Because Multipurpose

Striving to do more and more with less and less is a goal of mine...especially as I grow older (and hopefully, smarter!) and what once seemed like a reasonable pack load now seems heavy. Old-time materials such as canvas, leather, and wool have amazing properties but lightness is not one of them. I love my wool blanket but carrying it along with a jacket and assorted other cold weather gear resulted in just too much stuff to pack, carry, and keep track of. So, I had an idea...and knew just the master of fabrics who could make turn this idea into reality.

Misseswether contemplates my idea.
Poncho

I wanted a warm cover to wear when teaching and on adventure and I like my wool blanket. How about a poncho made out of my wool blanket BUT with a way to seal up the hole for my head so at night I could wrap it around myself to stay warm? "No problem." was her response. "I'll cut a t-shaped opening for your head, use a blanket-stitch with wool yarn to hem the edges of this cut, then crochet wool flaps around the edges that you can lace together to seal the hole. Give me three hours."

Step 1. Make the hole. Misseswether had me very precisely fold the blanket so that the spot were my head would go was in one corner. She then made three connected cuts to open up a t-shape slit in the center of the blanket.
Poncho

Poncho

Step 2. Does it fit? Yes!
Poncho

Step 3. Blanket-stitch the edges.
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Finished edge. Damn, Misseswether is good!
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Step 4. Crochet overlapping edge.
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Playing with blanket pins to seal it up.
Closed

Finished!
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The leather belt wraps the front portion of the poncho around me. It takes a little finagling to get the belt in place at first but now it's easy. A backpack would have to go under the poncho causing the back pack to be far away from the body but that's okay in most of the Texas "cold" weather.

Saturday, February 18, 2017

Pizza in a Hole in the Wild

I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.
-Henry David Thoreau

Who wants pizza?
-Merriwether

The empty wilds, trackless woods, and countless stars are the house and home of my soul...but that doesn't mean I can't eat well when out away from civilization. Another weekend was spent at the Busman's place felling 100' loblolly pines which will eventually become a home for him and his family. But for now the creature comforts are only what you can carry in a backpack. Okay, and in a truck capable of offroading. Last time I was there I built a stone oven in the side of a small hill and cooked biscuits, potatoes, and my feet (it got down to 21F that night). This time I had set my culinary sights much higher...pizza!

Success!
Camp Cooking

The process started with building a nice fire of seasoned oak inside the oven and feeding it for three hours to get the interior soaked with heat. Luckily this didn't need constant watching, just checking every 30-40 minutes and adding wood as necessary.

The oven.
Camp Cooking

Earlier that day I found some perfect greenbriar tips and a somewhat old but usable oyster mushroom. I've never had a greenbriar/wild oyster mushroom/pepperoni pizza before but it sounded like a great thing to make.

Greenbriar!
Greenbriar

Oyster mushroom! Younger would have been better. At this stage it was pretty chewy.
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Instant pizza dough is my go-to source of bread in the woods. All it needs added is some really warm water, a bit of kneading, a dash of oil, and some time to rise. Normally I use it for stick bread or cooking in my pie iron but this time it was actually used for pizza. I let the dough rise inside my truck which was quite warm inside due to the sun shining through the windows.

These go everywhere in the wild with me!
Camp Cooking

I thought one packet would give me enough to make a deep-dish pizza in my 12" cast iron pan but it only covered the pan's bottom. Next time I'll use two packages to have enough to go up the sides of the pan. To help prevent sticking I coated the bottom of the pan with a bit of the dry pizza dough mix held aside specifically for this. I par-baked this crust for ~6 minutes in the hillside oven and then lined the pan sides with giant tortillas. Deep-dish pizza save!

The pizza starts coming together.
Camp Cooking

Contadina makes pizza sauce in a squeeze bottle. What's nice about this is is doesn't need refrigeration. It has a pretty good flavor but a Papa John's spice packet gives it a little more pep.
Camp Cooking

Multiple layer's of sauce, pepperoni, mozzarella cheese, then topped with the oyster mushroom, sliced greenbriar, and a ring of pepperoni.
Camp Cooking

The hot coals were pushed to the back of the oven until there was room to put in the pan/pizza. It was in there about 12 minutes, being turned about a third of the way around at minute 4 and 8. The cement door is closed between turnings to keep the heat in the oven and to reflect back heat from the coals.

Into the oven!
Camp Cooking

Out of the oven!
Camp Cooking

There were only two of us and the pizza was THICK! The Busman has a fridge in his bus so leftover pizza for breakfast.
Camp Cooking

Some may say cooking like this takes away some of the bonding with nature that one goes into the woods for. They may be right but I also go into the woods to test myself and my ability to do stuff. I've read about earth ovens but I wanted to try it, not just read about it. As much as I admire Thoreau's, Aldo Leopold's, and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's simple bonds with nature, I guess I'm too much of a scientist to follow directly in their shoes. To be isn't enough for me. To be more is my goal.

Adventure! Excitement! Pepperoni!

Sunday, February 05, 2017

Becoming Dunedain.

It's probably no surprise that A) playing Dungeons and Dragons was a large part of my childhood and B) even today I still play rangers almost exclusively...except for one half-Orc poacher named Bark that is just a big, ugly ranger. Of course my love of woods drive these choices, though multiple reading of Tolkien is also a big part. I've always wanted to be a Dunedain, one of Tolkien's Rangers of the North.

Well, today I got one step closer. While I've dabbled a bit with tracking I've never actually taken any formal training on it. Some of my friends have been able to attend Tom Brown Jr.'s tracking/wilderness school but that's always been out of my range. Luckily, Beau Harger, a Level 3 Certified Tracker, came to the Houston Arboretum and spent the morning quadrupling my knowledge of tracking.

Beau kneeling, explaining a track.
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Beau was an excellent teacher and he quickly had us understanding what aspects of the track should get the most attention and which aspects could accidentally mislead us. It turned out to be the same things needed to identify plants...and lead you to mis-identify plants! Primary observations are the key. Focusing in only on the definable, the measurable. Ratios of shapes are as important as the shapes themselves. Just as importantly, avoid assumptions.

The track here you probably can't see, we were able to identify this as a domestic (pet) dog track by the end of the class.
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Coyote track showing direct register (overlap of front and back footstep).
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Armadillo track.
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Here are the details of common animal tracks as described by Beau.

Raccoon
Front foot is symmetrical, rear foot is asymmetrical. Five toes on each foot. Nails/claws visible. Palm pad on same plane as toe pads. Low to on hind foot is inside. Found within 1/2 mile of water.

Domestic Dog
Somewhat circular and symmetrical but with a looseness. Four toes present. Prominent nail marks. Anterior (top) part of palm pad is uni-lobed. Palm pad is wider than tall. Negative space forms a star.

Coyote
More symmetrical than domestic dog and oval/aerodynamic. Four toes present. Nails very fine and may not register. Two center-toe nails are often very close together. Anterior (top) part of palm pad is uni-lobed. Palm pad height = width. Negative space forms an X. Coyotes are trotting hunters. Track direct register (hind foot steps in track of front foot). Scat is twisted, tapered at ends, and contains fur, seeds, etc. Often found in middle of trail junctions to mark territory.

Opossum
Front foot symmetrical with five toes, widely splayed. Rear foot asymmetrical with opposable thumb. Nails present. Palm pad very bulbous.

Domestic Cat
Overall shape is circular. Front foot asymmetrical, hind foot symmetrical. Four blocky, roundish toes. Nails not present. Anterior portion of palm pad is bi-lobed and major portion of track. Negative space forms a C. Tracks are direct registered.

Bobcat
Overall shape is circular. Front foot asymmetrical, hind foot symmetrical. Four teardrop-shaped toes. Nails not present. Anterior portion of palm pad is bi-lobed, posterior portion of palm pad is ti-lobed. Negative space forms a thicker C than domestic cat. Tracks are direct registered. Scat is smooth-surfaced, segmented, with blunt ends.

Squirrel
Both front and hind feet are slightly asymmetrical. Four toes on front foot, five toes on hind foot. Nails present. Front foot has a large, somewhat triangular palm pad and two small, round heel pads. Hind foot palm pad consists of four pads in an arc-shape.

Armadillo
Front foot has three long toes, splayed out but symmetrical. Longest toes on outside of foot. Hind foot has two long toes, mostly parallel. Nails present. No palm pads. Burrows are triangular-shape holes.

Cottontail Rabbit
Front foot asymmetrical with five toes. Hind foot symmetrical with four toes. Nails present. Palms don't register but sometimes hair does. Browed plants cut at 45-degree angle. Swamp rabbits leave scat on logs, cottontails do not.

Wild Hog
Symmetrical hooves with rounded anterior tips. Splayed somewhat outwards. Dewclaws register outside of hooves. Dirt clumps up at front of hoof. Scat is bulbous and clumpy, not scattered/splattered. Ground in area often rooted up.

Deer
Symmetrical hooves, pointed at anterior tip. Dewclaws in line with hooves but usually only register when deer is running. Blowout dirt knocked forward in direction deer is running. Tracks direct register when walking. Browse is frayed/torn. Tree scrapes are frayed at top and bottom from vertical rubbing. Earth scrape triangular with point at tree and low branch directly above. Scat is round, shiny pellets.

Adventure! Excitement! Aragorn!

Sunday, January 15, 2017

A Tale of Fire and Ice

Winter camping growing up in Minnesota.
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"Winter" camping in Texas.
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While my normal camping grounds are deep in the woods of the Sam Houston National Forest, there are certain things you can't do on public land. Luckily, over the years amazingly cool people have welcomed me onto there slices of the wild. Sidenote: people with slices of wild also usually have cool toys.

50 cal...putting the "power" in "firepower".
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.22 cal bullet vs 50 cal. Bazinga!
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We had planned this trip months ago and while it technically is winter I personally didn't think it'd get all the cold. Just to be safe though I did buy a SnugPak underquilt for my hammock because I wasn't sure my homemade one would be enough. Turns out this was the right call...and also the many reviews saying it's tricky to use were also right...unfortunately. More about this later, though.

Clark and I arrived at the Busman's property in late morning, soon followed by the Bearded Hobbit and his friend, David. Sidenote: my UV-5R radio was able to alert the Busman we were approaching for around 3 miles away. Cool...and to go off topic I was using this same radio this morning to listen in on the support crew of the Houston Marathon, 15-17 miles away! Clark's wife was running in it. Anyway, I digress. Different people had different goals for the weekend. The Bearded Hobbit and David wanted to try out their homemade gear against the harsh Texas winter whereas I wanted to experiment with some new cooking methods in preparation for my "Primitive Cooking for Ancient Foods" classes this fall at the Midwest Wild Foods Festival.

Cooking foods inside a pile of hot rocks is pretty dang primitive...unless you are using cement blocks as your rocks. Alas, East Texas lacks fist-sized rocks so twelve 12"x12" cement pavers were used to create an oven. These pavers were used to absorb the heat of a fire burning inside this over. To increase the thermal mass the were used to line a hole dug in the side of a hill and then buried, making something akin to an Earth oven used for millennia.

The floor was made of four 12"x12" pavers stacked two deep and the walls and roof were made of single pavers.
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The chimney was made of a standard "Figure 8" cinder block with a 6"x 12" paver to control the draft.
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The whole thing was buried and another 12"x12" paver was used as the door. An ash-pit hole was dug in front of the oven to make pulling out the fire coals before putting in the food to be cooked. Some scrap pieces of wood were also placed in front of the oven to kneel upon when using it.

Once the oven was completed a fire was made inside it and fed for four hours to get the pavers really hot. The paver over the chimney reached 225F even though the outside temperature was in the high 30s. Replacing it with a pizza stone would give us a hot, rock cooking surface.
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We used that "chimney slab" to dry and preheat wood to be added into the oven fire. The front door didn't seal tightly so it offered enough fresh air in to keep the fire blazing to the point where flames were shooting out of the chimney! It seemed to be working quite well.

The first cooking test of this over occurred four hours later. The chimney was completely sealed, most of the hot coals where scraped into the pit with about half pushed to the back of the oven to maintain heat, a cast iron pan of biscuits was placed inside the over, and the door was replaced along with plugging its gaps with clay and wood. The biscuit recipe said bake them for 20 minutes at 425F. After 20 minutes the oven was opened and the pan of biscuits was removed. The side towards the back of the oven looked perfect but the front ones were still a bit raw. The pan was turned around and put back in the oven and the door was resealed. After another 8 minutes or so the biscuits were taken out again...and devoured! They tasted delicious and hit the spot as night fell and the cold weather started sinking in.

Cheese biscuits!
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Busman had brought along some venison which we cooked over the campfire rather than in the oven. However, after taking out the biscuits the oven was loaded up with whole potatoes, onions, and garlic to bake while the venison was roasted.

Before:
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After:
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Meat on sticks!
venison

While the foods were cooking I set up my hammock, underquilts, and blankets. Since it was supposed to get down into the 20s after sunset I used both my poncho liner under quilt and the Snugpak underquilt beneath me and the Snugpak Jungle blanket and a wool blanket as covers. No sleeping bag was used as I find them too confining.

My room for the night.
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Temperture below freezing and dropping more. Luckily I brought my Minnesota Hat!
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The SnugPak underquilt did prove as tricky as reported to set up properly and sadly (and coldly!) I never did get it properly adjusted under me. It kept slipping out, taking the poncho liner with it and leaving me really, really cold. The top covers did great but without the underquilts they weren't enough to keep me warm and so it ended up being a COLD night. At 4am my feet felt on the edge of frostbite so I did what any smart adventure does and stuck them inside the paver oven! Oh blessed warmth! The inside of the over was still 95F and felt great. Had I brought my blankets with me to it I would have slept the rest of the night there, with wonderfully toasty toes. After 30 minutes I was warm enough to return to my hammock and drifted in and out of sleep until the sky began to turn gray.

Mmmmm!
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Of the five of us camping out there I ended up the coldest by far. Ironically, three of the other four were from Texas and one was from Florida. There's concern about the cold weather made them over-prepare to deal with it and so they did fine that night.

As usual, I was up and rebuilding the campfire well before anyone else was stirring. Breakfast was hot instant coffee and corned beef hash in a tortilla cooked in my pie iron. It was great but pre-cooking the corned beef hash some first may have made it even better.

Our hot water froze during the night.
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Here's a picture of the ground to give you an idea of the temperature.
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Once everyone was up we went mushroom hunting. Alas all the oyster mushrooms had froze and were no longer edible. This was a tragedy.
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No mushrooms but the can of sweetened condensed milk I had baked at the edge of the campfire had turned into a giant Tootsie Roll! Mmmmm, calories on a cold day!
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Busman is currently clearing out some of his property to build a log cabin using pines he's harvested. There is still a lot of pines needing to be taken down...so of course we tried it using Tannerite. However, the pine tree resisted four 1 lb blasts of Tannerite...but it couldn't stand against a chain saw.

I love chemistry!
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Adventure! Excitement! Extreme Temperature Ranges!